Dyspraxia & Autism – The Overlap

In many of my blog posts I have mentioned that there are a lot of similarities between dyspraxia and autism, but I haven’t always gone into a lot of detail about them. So I thought I would write a blog post which specifically looks at the overlap between dyspraxia and autism.

Dyspraxia and autism can both be considered to be part of ‘neurodiversity’. For those of you who don’t know what is meant by this, this diagram is useful in giving an overview of the make-up of neurodiversity along with details about the various overlaps:


For this blog post I also decided to create my own diagram to show you how I picture the link between dyspraxia and autism:

Dyspraxia and autism.001

As you can see from the diagram, dyspraxia is classed as a ‘Specific Learning Difficulty’ and isn’t on ‘The Autism Spectrum’. However, it has a lot of similarities to autism, in particular Asperger’s and High Functioning Autism which are at the mild end of the autism spectrum. Some people with dyspraxia actually consider themselves to be ‘on the spectrum’. I must also point out that in addition to the overlap, people with dyspraxia may also have an additional diagnosis of autism. Someone may be diagnosed with both dyspraxia and autism at the same time, or they may be diagnosed with dyspraxia first and autism later on in life or vice versa.

A common phrase used when talking about autism is “If you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met one person with autism” and it’s the same for dyspraxia too. While a lot of people with dyspraxia will experience a lot of overlaps with autism, this won’t be the case for every single person with dyspraxia. Some people with dyspraxia may have lots of overlap with autism, others may just have a bit of an overlap, while for some there will be none at all.

In my opinion, the ways in which dyspraxia is similar to autism are the least understood part of dyspraxia. For those people who have heard of dyspraxia before, when they think of dyspraxia words such as ‘clumsiness’ are likely to spring to mind when in fact there is so much more to it than that. I myself have only really fairly recently begun to understand in how many ways dyspraxia and autism are linked.

Firstly, I’ll start off by looking at social situations. Difficulties with social situations aren’t the same as just being shy, they are genuine difficulties that can be experienced by people with dyspraxia and autism. While they are probably one of the least likely things to be associated with dyspraxia, they are probably one of the most likely things to be associated with autism. Rosie has recently written an excellent blog about the social side to dyspraxia which can be found here: http://thinkoutsideofthecardboardbox.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/the-social-side-of-dyspraxia.html.

During social situations eye contact can be difficult to maintain. I’ll often be looking at something in the distance when talking to someone. To some people this may seem rude as it may look as though I’m not listening to you. I can assure you though, I am listening.


I’ve noticed that when talking to someone who has autism, if they’re someone who doesn’t like to make eye contact, I can tell that they’re not making eye contact. However, to me this doesn’t seem strange or something that is noticeable, it just seems natural. When I say that I have difficulty with eye contact obviously that doesn’t mean that I don’t look at a person at all when I’m talking to them, it just means that I might not make as much eye contact as other people would.

There are all sorts of aspects to social situations, whether it’s knowing when to interject in a conversation, knowing how to respond, or judging other people’s tone of voice. These are all things that come naturally for most people, but they do not always come naturally to those of us with dyspraxia or autism.

Personally, I find that I have the most difficulty in social situations when I am in a large group of people. I find that because there is so much going on it is difficult for me to process all of the information that is being said, so by the time I’ve thought of something to say as well as how I’m going to say it, everyone else has moved on to the next point! This is when there is only one conversation going on in a group, two conversations going on between different people in a group are even more difficult for me to keep up with.

My little brother, Ramsey, who is 3 years old has autism and I know that he can also find it difficult to process lots of information at once. For Ramsey, wherever possible we’ll shorten what we want to say. For example, rather than saying “Ramsey your dinner’s ready now! Come and sit at the table!” we will say “Ramsey, dinner” and show him his plate. My mum was advised about this from the Speech and Language Therapist as it will also help to develop his language skills. Although Ramsey has more difficulty in processing information than I do, it still shows how both people with dyspraxia and autism can have difficulty processing information. I’ve heard that people with autism also tend to prefer being in smaller groups than larger ones, which may be due to difficulties with processing.

Another aspect to social situations is taking things literally. I’m currently reading ‘The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time’. It’s a fantastic book. For those of you who don’t know what it’s about, it’s a fictional book about a fifteen year old boy, Christopher, who is thought to have Asperger’s syndrome (although this isn’t directly stated in the book). The book gives a brilliant insight into autism, and it is written from the perspective of Christopher. So I was reading the book and came to the point where he talks about metaphors and how he doesn’t understand them. I was sat there reading this page of the book thinking “I have no idea what most of these phrases mean either”.

‘When I try and make a picture of the phrase in my head it just confuses me because imagining an apple in someone’s eye doesn’t have anything to do with liking someone a lot and it makes you forget what the person was talking about.’ – The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time
‘I think metaphors should be called lies because a pig is not like a day and people do not have skeletons in their cupboards’ – The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

It wasn’t until after this that I realised that I do tend to imagine phrases literally and think of them in a very visual way, even when I do know their actual meaning. And for when I don’t know their meaning, I just have an amusing image in my head which is most likely to be nothing to do with what the person is talking about!

Not only does literal thinking come into phrases, it comes into all sorts of parts of a conversation. If someone makes a sarcastic comment I often can’t tell whether they’re being serious or not. If it’s a close friend or family member I’ll just admit that I thought of it literally and laugh about it. On the other hand if I’m with someone I don’t know very well they might think it’s a bit strange how literally I take some things.

Something else that can make social situations difficult is background noise. This is something that I only realised was related to my dyspraxia until fairly recently. Most people would go into a loud environment and may struggle a bit to make out what someone is saying but they would still be able to distinguish the noise of the conversation from other background noises. For me, however, the noises seem to merge into one and I find I have to focus really hard to try and figure out what the person is saying.

I know that, similarly to this, lots of people with autism can experience sensory overload in these sorts of situations. This video gives an idea of what sensory overload can feel like:

As well as noise, people with autism can also be over or under-sensitive to light, texture and temperature. My little brother Ramsey is over-sensitive to certain noises. One of the noises he hates is the echo when walking through a tunnel. Even if we haven’t reached the tunnel yet but he knows its coming up soon he will cover his ears with his hands, which shows how loud the noise must seem to him.

People with dyspraxia can also be over-sensitive to noise, light, texture and temperature too, although not always to the same extent as someone with autism might be. For me, I’m over-sensitve to certain temperatures, particularly the cold. I get cold very easily and often will find myself shivering even where it’s not the sort of temperature you’d need a coat for! I also hate certain textures. When I was younger I used to not like certain clothing because of it’s texture. I don’t have as many problems with that now, but I do find that there are certain foods that I hate not because of their taste but because of their texture.


Lots of people will associate a need for routine with autism, but again it’s not something that people would tend to associate with dyspraxia. One time when explaining to someone that I don’t like changes in routine because of my dyspraxia they actually said “But that’s more Asperger’s isn’t it?” After my dad pointed out that Asperger’s and dyspraxia are quite closely related to each other she then pointed out that dyspraxia is classed as a Specific Learning Difficulty and Asperger’s is an Autism Spectrum Disorder. People just don’t seem to understand the similarities.

Dyspraxic Panda (aka the best and most relatable meme ever!)

Those of us with dyspraxia and autism can become upset and frustrated when our routine changes. We like to plan things out in our head so we know exactly what we are doing. For me, an example of a change of routine in the past which I didn’t like would be when I was at school and forgot to make my lunch the night before. Most people would just do it in the morning and not worry much about it at all. However, I did things in a certain order when getting things ready for school. So when I realised I’d forgotten to make my lunch 15 minutes before we needed to leave, rather than my reaction being “15 minutes will be plenty of time, I’ll just make it now” it would be “I’ve only got 15 minutes! How am I going to get everything done in time? I still need to get other things ready! What am I going to do?”

Another example of a change in routine was when I had an athletics competition. My mum suggested that I could stay round hers in the morning and then my dad could pick me up on the way to the competition. Rather than starting to think of all the things I would need to take with me to my mum’s I started to worry about the changes. “What if mum’s alarm doesn’t go off?” “What if I forget to take something to my mum’s that I need for the competition?” were the sort of things I started to worry about. I’d just always had the same routine when getting ready for an athletics competition that I didn’t like the thought of it changing.

I also find that when I do need to do things in a slightly different order to my usual routine I end up missing something out. For example, if I have to get up really early in the morning for a day out I might decide not to have breakfast as soon as I get up. But because I would normally have breakfast straight away I end up completely forgetting to have any breakfast at all!

Ramsey also very much likes his routine. He gets upset if the furniture is moved around or if something is not in the right place. He also has a routine on the way back from town. There is a specific bollard that he will touch and he will get upset if he isn’t able to do it. Ramsey also doesn’t like being in unfamiliar places, even if he is going on a different route to town than usual he will get upset. This proves that he has a much better sense of direction than me despite the fact that I’m 15 years older! I still end up going the wrong way to town sometimes when I’m at my mum’s, despite the fact that she has lived where she is now for 3 years!

Something that links into routines is that for those of us with dyspraxia or autism things have to be ‘just right’. For example if Ramsey is lining up his toys he won’t just line them up any old way, they have to be lined up perfectly and if someone has moved them even slightly he will notice. One particular example of this I can remember from when I was younger was a toy that I had. In fact I’ve managed to find a photo of the same toy online:


There’s a home video of me saying to my dad “I don’t want these bits!” I can remember at the time I was referring to the accessories that came with the toy. It’s difficult to explain but to me a toy had to be all in one, so the fact that there was nowhere for the accessories to go inside the buggy meant that it ‘wasn’t right’. If I played with the buggy I had to play with the accessories too because they were part of the same toy but if there was nowhere to put there accessories then I couldn’t play with them too. To me, it does seem a bit silly thinking back to it but at the same time I can understand what I was thinking too. Although I’m not sure whether it makes sense to anyone else though!

When I was playing with this toy it’s most likely that I was sitting there quietly moving the buggy around. This is because something that can be difficult for people with dyspraxia and autism is imaginative play. I did used to make up some sort of story in my head but I didn’t tend to say it out loud. At the time it just seemed weird to me to say it out loud. I would dress up dolls and move them around a bit etc. but certainly didn’t play as imaginatively with toys as other children would. On the other hand, I enjoyed creative writing and would be imaginative in my story ideas. Again, Ramsey is similar to me with imaginative play. He doesn’t often play imaginatively with his toys, instead he tends to line them up or move them backwards and forwards. I’ve noticed that when Ramsey is playing with his cars he tend to press down on them really hard. Difficulty judging the amount of pressure to apply is something that is linked to both dyspraxia and autism. Going back to imaginative play, Ramsey has a couple of times held up his toy phone to his ear, it’s just not very often that he does this. My mum said to me that Ramsey even once said “Hello” into the phone which was surprising but lovely to hear (as Ramsey is non-verbal).

Speech is another way in which dyspraxia and autism can overlap. People with autism may be non-verbal or they may have delayed language development. People with dyspraxia can also have difficulty with speech, our speech can be immature or we can get words muddled up. If someone has significant difficulties with speech they are diagnosed with verbal dyspraxia. With dyspraxia we often have a tendency to repeat ourselves and talk continuously about one thing, I know I do this a lot. People with Asperger’s may also talk continuously about one particular subject.

While it’s not something that I do, some people with dyspraxia or autism may flap their hands. Ramsey flaps his hands when he is excited. I love this explanation of hand-flapping I saw a few weeks ago (from this article: http://www.babble.com/mom/autism-acceptance-month-10-things-i-wish-your-kids-knew-about-autism). It’s so true, it’s just another way of expressing excitement:

5. Lots of people talk with their hands.
Hand-flapping is pretty common in kids with autism. (But not every kid who flaps his or her hands is autistic, and not every kid with autism flaps.) Most of the time, hand-flapping just expresses excitement. How else do people use their hands to talk? We give the “thumbs up” and make peace signs. You raise your hand to let your teacher know you want to be called on. Deaf people might use American Sign Language. How else do you use your hands to express yourself?

Another movement that both people with dyspraxia and autism might do is to fidget a lot. It’s quite funny because when I’m at my mum’s Ramsey will often start fiddling with my necklace, for example. I’ll make some sort of comment to my mum like “Ramsey seems to really like playing with my necklace” only to find myself a few hours later doing exactly the same thing myself without even realising it!

Something else that I’ve only realised recently is that autism can affect people physically too. It’s the opposite way round this time. Physical difficulties are the most likely to be associated with dyspraxia but are probably the least likely to be associated with autism. Just like people with dyspraxia, people with autism can have difficulties with spatial awareness, fine motor skills and gross motor skills. My mum has pointed out that there are quite a few things that Ramsey does now that I used to do when I was younger. For example Ramsey will often walk with his hands in the air to help him balance, which is something that I used to do when I was younger. Ramsey also sometimes walks on his toes which I sometimes do too. Ramsey finds using cutlery difficult, which is something that I used to have a lot of difficulty with (and still have some difficulty with now) too. Also, I can certainly understand how  Ramsey feels when he bumps into things that are right in front of him too, spatial awareness isn’t a strength for either of us!

Dyspraxia and autism are both hidden. You can’t tell someone has it just by looking at them! If you know enough about either of the conditions you may be able to tell that someone is dyspraxic or autistic by the way they behave over a certain period of time. You can’t, however, say that someone ‘looks autistic’ or ‘looks dyspraxic’!


Through writing this blog post I’ve actually learnt more myself about how dyspraxia and autism are similar, as there are some things that I hadn’t thought of before!

Here’s a summary of the similarities between dyspraxia and autism:

  • Social situations – eye contact, processing information, literal thinking, background noise
  • Sensory sensitivity
  • Routines
  • Imaginative play
  • Speech
  • Hand-flapping
  • Fidgeting
  • Physical – fine & gross motor skills, spatial awareness

Another thing that dyspraxia and autism both have in common is the ability to see things from a different perspective.


It would be boring if everyone thought the same way, wouldn’t it?

Natalie 🙂

29 thoughts on “Dyspraxia & Autism – The Overlap

Add yours

  1. Yes, they overlap A LOT!! I have both! My one child has both, the other dypsraxia severely and the other just Aspergers. Its interesting to see all of our similarities but also our differences in capabilities, life skills and coping! And I find that the overlapping is incredible…but I also find I relate to people with Autism or Dyspraxia in very different ways- its true that you have just met one unique soul and that even with traits overlapping they can come across differently in very different ways. This was a great post! You really did research your material!:)


      1. This is all very interesting. My son has been diagnosed with severe ADHD, dyspraxia, sensory processing disorder, anxiety and depression. Now he will be evaluated for autism because of his severe social anxiety. I always thought dyspraxia, ADHD and autism had many similarities. And wonder how they decide which one to diagnose. My son definitely has characteristics of all 3 but doesn’t fit any of them to a T. We have been going through evaluations and treatments for two years. I feel I have taken him to the best professionals to get evaluated. It’s just all overwhelming. And of course the treatment for them is all different!!


  2. This is the most comprehensive thing I’ve ever read on the similarities between Dyspraxia and Aspergers/Autism. This is fantastic! I’ve recognised myself in this so much being Dyspraxic but also a lot of my Bloke on the mild Aspergers side (he’s undiagnosed) but then there’s parts where it just crosses over constantly, as you describe. It’s funny – a friend gave him The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time because they thought he’d really really like it but I think he missed their point entirely and said it was ok, nothing special lol

    Liked by 1 person

      1. This was such an interesting read and well written, and so much of it relates to my son. It is both informative and reassuring for me to read as a parent.


  3. I really appreciated your post. It helps explain so much about my son that I have questioned so many times through the years. The more I understand my 12 year old the more I can help him. Especially now that he is getting older I see he struggles more to hide this already particularly hidden dyspraxia. Thank you.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. This is awesome. My son is 17 and we have just pinpointed that he is Dyspraxic. It took so long to figure out exactly what it was. Not many people have heard of it, including us. We also had concerns of high functioning Autism. Every day is a challenge but with knowledge and good coping strategies he will do just fine. Thank you.


  5. Thanks for writing this Natalie. I was diagnosed with Autism as an adult after my son got diagnosed with Asperger’s at age 9. I recently felt confused when I read about dyspraxia as we both seem to have all the symptoms of dyspraxia too! I even wondered if I had been misdiagnosed. I now think I probably have both but it’s really interesting and helpful to see the similarities laid out so clearly here.


  6. I was diagnosed with Asperger’s at 45people are always telling me that I don’t have that because I’m not like this or I’m not like that. I spend explaining that it’s my autism. Only thing is the routine part. I don’t think anything in my life has ever been routine.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Natalie, I want to say a massive thank you. I was diagnosed with dyspraxia when I started university nearly 3 years ago. But recently I met a friend and she mentioned dyspraxia being on the autism scale, so I became fixated on it.

    I can identify with much of what you say – things have to be just right… in fact i use that very term (just right). I struggle with social situations. I can’t keep eye contact, and when I’m talking to someone, I too look into the distance. I can hear a tap dripping, and can hear it over a conversation with a client. Everything has to be lined up – I’ll give you an example, I built a website recently and EVERYTHING had be lined up perfectly (margins, icons, logo, boxes, EVERYTHING) – and I got so upset when it wasn’t. My spacial awareness is terrible. I’m overly sensitive to light and people in general. And I take everything literally.

    How come this wasn’t diagnosed at the same time as my dyspraxia? If anything, it would have helped me understand what was going on for me


    1. No problem. That does sound very similar to me! In answer to your question (sorry this is such a late reply!) as I mentioned in my post the similarities between dyspraxia and autism are often still part of dyspraxia (I’m diagnosed with dyspraxia and not autism). However, some people do also have an additional diagnosis of autism as well as dyspraxia


  8. Not sure if this is the appropriate place to put this, but here’s an analogy for what it’s like having bad spatial awareness. It’s like seeing a train approach at a level crossing. You don’t know how fast it’s going until it’s practically there.


  9. Fantastic review my sons pcycolagist thinks he has dyspraxia he is 13years old I feel so guilty that I did not see the signs when her was younger I really only noticed it about 2 years ago he is having a lot of problems in school not able to concentrate and sit still constantly fidgeting and disrupting class his self esteem is in his shoes at the moment please god next term will be easier if he gets some help thanks for the great read


    1. Thank you. Try not to feel guilty about it, it’s not your fault. So many people don’t get diagnosed until they are older, which I think is largely to do with lack of awareness. I hope your son gets the support he needs


  10. I think the major difference between dyspraxia and autism is the impression one gets when communicating with the person. In autism, we feel the person is in her bubble and we can’t reach her or she does not want to reach out. (of course this also depends on the severity of autism) This is not the case with a person having dyspraxia. The person with dyspraxia suffers from lack of social integration and desires it even if there is social inadequacy.
    I don’t know really, but I tend to think eventually if there is diagnosis of dyspraxia, autism should be ruled out. How else can you give two diagnoses that overlap 90 percent? Finally to ask the question in a different way: what is the difference? you can have autism without dyspraxia. in this case diagnosis is easy. But if you have dyspraxia? the same logic would apply for ADHD. Easy to diagnose alone but if you have dyspraxia? I would like to think If one has dyspraxia, no need to add autism and ADHD or ADD. Dyspraxia includes enough symptoms to warrant for autism and ADHD diagnoses. NO need for redundancy
    TO clarify my position, If a person is having delusions and hallucinations, we can’t diagnose for psychosis if he was under the effect of a drug or has a medical condition such as brain tumor. So if one has dyspraxia, we should exclude autism and ADHD/ADD.
    What do you think?


    1. I can see what you mean, but I know of quite a lot of people who have more than one condition so I think it is possible and does seem to make sense. Dyspraxia doesn’t account for other conditions to the same extent as having an additional diagnosis does, as far as I know


  11. I’m nearly at the end of reading Neuro Tribes Steve Silberman. The overlaps in your diagrams are interesting but they suggest that learning difficulties and autism can be combined. We probably don’t even need another label. Learning Difficultes to me is more likely a sub set of Autism, to think of them as separate (though related) entities may in the long run find resources are duplicated. I am more inclined to think Dyslexia and its co conditions are a kind of Autism, or on the Autistic spectrum.


  12. Thank You This was a very interesting read. I’m dyspraxc and have often thought about crossovers. I feel inclined to say Dyspraxics/people with Dyspraxia have a spectrum and perhaps the two spectra converge in one of more places?

    I also think that many of us with Dyspraxia like to have routines to try to bring some semblence of order to our sometimes/often chaotic existence. These may become ritual and/or obsession (subjective) to the point where others observing may cry out “Hhe/she must be autistic”. It’s a false flag.

    The lack of recognition and false flagging of some dyspraxic traits as autistic traits seems to cause annoyance and distress in some cases. Please forgive the metaphor (I quite like them and this one is borrowed adapted from else) but aren’t we all whatever flags we fly on our craft all neurodivergent folk charting our way through the on occasion storm prone ocean of Neurotypicality (or Neurodiversity)?

    Liked by 1 person

  13. Thank you for sharing your experiences on this post. I recognise a lot that you mentioned as I come to terms with a diagnosis of Dyspraxia in my 50s. There has been some interesting research (psychiatry.cam.ac.uk/blog/2017/02/24/dyspraxia-associated-with-autistic-traits-in-adulthood) around the links between autistic traits and dyspraxia – which is available online. Here’s a cutdown of their conclusions.
    ‘Results: Adults with Autism were significantly more likely to report a diagnosis of dyspraxia (6.9%) than those without Autism (0.8%). In the Autistic Spectrum Conditions group, those with co-morbid diagnosis of dyspraxia did not have significantly different AQ (Autism) or EQ (Empathy) scores than those without co-morbid dyspraxia. However, in the control group (without Autistic Spectrum Conditions), those with dyspraxia had significantly higher AQ and lower EQ scores than those without dyspraxia. Conclusions: Dyspraxia is significantly more prevalent in adults with ASC compared to controls, confirming reports that motor coordination difficulties are significantly more common in this group. Interestingly, in the general population, dyspraxia was associated with significantly higher autistic traits and lower empathy. These results suggest that motor coordination skills are important for effective social skills and empathy.’
    ‘Autistic traits are not the same as having a diagnosis of autism; instead, these are characteristics of personality and behaviour that are found throughout the general population and are linked to what is seen in the clinical condition of autism. Everyone has some autistic traits – such as difficulty in taking another person’s point of view, difficulty in switching attention flexibly, and excellent attention to detail – and there is a wide range in the population.’
    Dr Carrie Allison, a member of the Cambridge research team, commented: “The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a valuable research instrument and AQ scores correlate with brain structure, brain function, social perception, and attention to detail, among other things. But it is important to underline that it is not diagnostic. A high score alone is not a reason to seek help: it is only if the high number of autistic traits is causing stress and difficulties that a person may need a referral to a specialist clinic.”
    The Autism Research Centre website has lots of information and free downloadable tests, such as the AQ and EQ tests.


    1. Thanks for your comment! I remember reading about that research a while ago, interesting although from my personal perspective I don’t feel my social difficulties are ‘due to’ my motor difficulties, I feel that my social difficulties are a core part of my dyspraxia


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